نوع‌شناسی گروه‌های کاری در سازمان: ترکیب سرمایۀ اجتماعی و اثربخشی گروهی

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، دانشکدة روان‌شناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری، دانشکدة روان‌شناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

انواع گروه‌های کاری با توجه به ویژگی‌ها و متغیرهای مختلف تاکنون بررسی شده‌اند، اما امروزه مشخص شده است در این بین، ویژگی‌هایی مانند سرمایة اجتماعی گروه‌ها مورد غفلت واقع شده است که می‌تواند ترکیب متفاوتی از گروه‌ها را شکل دهد. از این رو، این مطالعه به دنبال ارائة یک نوع‌شناسی از گروه‌ها بر مبنای دو ویژگی سرمایة اجتماعی و اثربخشی آن‌ها است. همچنین، سعی کرده است با مطالعات تعقیبی، بهترین شرایط برای تأثیرگذاری این دو ویژگی بر گروه‌ها را تشریح کند. مطالعة حاضر با به‌کارگیری طرح ترکیبی (کمی-کیفی) گروه‌ها را بررسی کرده است. نمونة مورد بررسی متشکل از 30 گروه بود و داده‌ها با ابزار پرسشنامه (بین همة اعضای گروه‌ها/ 208 پرسشنامه) و مصاحبه (12 مصاحبة عمیق) جمع‌آوری شد. نتایج فاز کمی نشان داد گروه‌ها بر مبنای سرمایة اجتماعی و اثربخشی به چهار خوشه گروه‌بندی می‌شوند. در فاز کیفی پس از تعمیق‌بخشیدن یافته‌های فاز کمی، خوشة اول با عنوان تیم‌های خودگردان، خوشة دوم با عنوان گروه‌های از هم پاشیده، خوشة سوم با عنوان گروه‌های در حال تحول و خوشة چهارم با عنوان گروه‌های مکانیکی نام‌گذاری شدند. همچنین، نتایج فاز کیفی آشکار کرد که تأثیرگذاری سرمایة اجتماعی بر اثربخشی گروه‌ها تحت تأثیر سبک رهبری قرار دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

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