بررسی طولی ـ ملی (1990 ـ 2014) نقش سرمایۀ اجتماعی در توسعۀ صنعتی

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری دانشکدة ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

2 استادیار گروه جامعه‌شناسی، دانشکدة ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

چکیده

هدف این تحقیق بررسی نقش سرمایة اجتماعی در توسعة صنعتی در 139 جامعه در بازة زمانی 1990 تا 2014 بود. به علت فقدان داده‌های برخی از جوامع و سال‌ها، ساختار داده‌ها پانل نامتوازن بود و با توجه به اهمیت بررسی وزن سرمایة اجتماعی در کنار سایر عوامل و بررسی مسیرهای علّی تحلیل داده‌ها با استفاده از روش رگرسیون چندگانه به روش گام‌به‌گام و تحلیل مسیر انجام ‌شد. نتایج نشان داد سرمایة اجتماعی (و سرمایة انسانی، که اهمیت تجربی یکسانی دارند) بعد از کیفیت نهادی مهم‌ترین عامل مؤثر بر سطح توسعه‌یافتگی صنعتی در جوامع است. بررسی مسیرهای علّی نیز نشان داد مسیر سرمایة انسانی مهم‌ترین مسیر علّی دخیل است. سطوح بالای سرمایة اجتماعی در جوامع به سرمایه‌گذاری بیشتر خانوار در تحصیل می‌انجامد و افزایش سطح سرمایة انسانی در جامعه بر توسعة صنعتی اثر مثبت می‌گذارد. دومین مسیر علّی مهم مسیر کیفیت نهادی است که طبق آن سرمایة اجتماعی بالا در جوامع کیفیت ساختار نهادی جوامع را تقویت می‌کند و ازین طریق عملکرد صنعتی جوامع را بهبود می‌بخشد. در مجموع نتایج نشان داد مسیرهای علّی ـ اجتماعی نقش بسیار بیشتری در مقایسه با مسیرهای علّی ـ اقتصادی ایفا می‌کنند.

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